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The main production system of underground mines – 1

Ⅰ. Hoisting transportation

1 Mine hoisting
Mine hoisting is the transportation link of transporting ore, waste rock and hoisting personnel, hoisting materials and equipment with certain equipment. According to the hoisting materials can be divided into two categories, one is rope hoisting (wire rope lifting), the other is rope hoisting (such as belt conveyor hoisting, hydraulic hoisting and pneumatic hoisting, etc.), among which wire rope hoisting is widely used.

1)Composition of the mine hoisting equipment

The main components of the mine hoisting equipment are hoisting container, hoisting wire rope, elevator (including towing device), derrick and sky wheel, and loading and unloading auxiliary devices.

2) Classification of mine hoisting equipment

(1) According to the shaft inclination, it is divided into shaft hoisting equipment and inclined shaft hoisting equipment.

(2) According to the type of hoisting container, it can be divided into cage hoisting equipment, skip hoisting equipment, skip-cage hoisting equipment, bucket hoisting equipment, and string truck hoisting equipment for inclined Wells.

(3) According to the use of hoisting, the main hoisting equipment (specialized or mainly hoisting ore, generally also known as the main well hoisting equipment), auxiliary hoisting equipment (hoisting waste stone, hoisting personnel, transporting materials and equipment, etc., generally also known as auxiliary well hoisting equipment) and auxiliary hoisting equipment (such as patio elevator, maintenance and hoisting, etc.).

(4) According to the type of hoist, it is divided into single-rope winding hoisting equipment (it has single drum and double drum), multi-rope winding hoisting equipment, single-rope friction hoisting equipment (no longer produced), and multi-rope friction hoisting equipment.

(5) According to the number of hoisting containers, it is divided into single container hoisting equipment (with balance hammer) and double container hoisting equipment.

(6) According to the balance state of the hoisting system, it is divided into unbalanced hoisting equipment and static balance hoisting equipment.

(7) According to the drag type, it is divided into AC hoisting equipment and DC hoisting equipment.

3) Hoisting system

(1) Single-rope winding hoisting of the shaft

For mines with well depth less than 300m and drum diameter not more than 3m, it is advisable to adopt a single rope winding hoisting system. Choosing the cage or the skip as the hoisting container is an important problem in the design, which needs to be determined by the comparison of various aspects (multi-rope friction hoisting is the same).

Usually in the design of the hoisting system, two sets of hoisting equipment are used to ensure the mine output and complete other lifting tasks. The main well is skip to lift the ore, and the auxiliary well is cages to complete the auxiliary hoisting task or the main and auxiliary Wells are all cages. Which way should be determined according to the specific conditions of each mine. When the annual output of the mine is large, it is best to use the main shaft skip, auxiliary shaft cage when the annual output of the mine is small or the ore type is more than two kinds, or the ore is not suitable to be crushed, it is best to use the cage.

When the multi-level is increased, the balance hammer single cage is usually used to increase in mines where the yield is not very large and the improvement level is more, and sometimes two sets of balance hammer single cage are used to ensure the yield.

For mines with very small annual output, a set of cage hoisting equipment can be used to complete all lifting tasks. This is true of many non-ferrous metal mines, non-metallic mines and nuclear industrial mines in China.

(2) Shaft multi-rope friction hoisting

Multi-rope friction elevator has many advantages. Therefore, in addition to the multi-rope friction elevator when the well depth is more than 300m instead of the drum diameter more than 3m, a smaller multi-rope friction elevator can also be used to replace the single-rope winding elevator with the drum diameter less than 3m.

Since it is difficult to adjust the wire rope length, the double container lift is only suitable for one production level. At the same time, due to the influence of the deformation of the lifting wire rope, the double container hoisting system can only ensure the accurate parking of the wellhead in the actual operation, and the container at the bottom of the well is parked in the exact position (for the skip hoisting, the accuracy of parking is not strict).

The single container balance hammer hoisting system is especially suitable for multi-level hoisting mines. And the balance hammer lifting can improve the skid performance of the multi-rope friction hoisting system. Moreover, the single container hoisting system is not affected by the deformation of the wire rope, which can ensure the accurate parking at all production levels, so it is used more. For multi-level improvement with more than two ore types, two sets of single container hoisting equipment and one set of single container according to the needs of specific production and production level.

(3) Slope shaft hoisting

The inclined shaft promotion has the advantages of fast construction and less investment. Its disadvantage is that the hoisting speed is slow, especially when the inclined length is large, the production capacity is small, the wire rope wear is large, and the wellbore maintenance cost is high. Therefore, inclined shaft hoisting is mostly used in small and medium-sized mines (except for belt conveyor hoisting).

The hoisting is divided into two kinds: single hook and double hook. The advantages of single hook mining unit improvement are small shaft section, less investment, low maintenance cost and convenient multi-level improvement. The disadvantages are low production capacity and high power consumption. The advantages of the improvement of double hook mine vehicles are the large output and small power consumption, such as the large shaft section, complex loading and unloading field, more investment, which is not conducive to the multi-level improvement. Generally, when the single hook vehicle is used to meet the production requirements, the double hook unit is not used.

Due to the large investment and long construction time, when the inclined shaft inclination is less than 28°, the mining vehicle group should be adopted as far as possible. However, the allowable speed of inclined shaft skip hoisting is large and the parking time is short. Therefore, in the mine with large annual output, no of the size of the inclination Angle. However, when the inclination is less than 18°, the belt conveyor can also be used.

4) Recovery of mineral powder

The shaft skip hoisting is due to the ore filling, the ore filling or the water seepage of the ore, the fine ore or mud and water mixing, and leaks into the bottom of the well through the gate gap, forming a large amount of slurry, resulting in the accumulation of fine ore at the bottom of the well. In addition to taking effective measures to reduce the source of fine ore, fine ore recovery devices must be designed. General fine powder ore recovery methods have the following several kinds.

(1) Using the bottom of the well as the powder bunker, starting from the lowest discharge level of the shaft, dig the roadway with the small cage mine shaft) at the bottom of the skip well. After the powder well is loaded by the funnel gate, it is lifted and unloaded by the small cage (or the small inclined well) into the skip bunker.

(2) When the mixed well is adopted, the powder ore warehouse is set on the bottom side of the well, from the bottom tank cage to the car, and connected with the loading port of the powder ore warehouse with the side channel. After the powder ore is loaded, the tank is lifted, unloaded into the skip mine warehouse or directly raises the surface.

(3) When the main and auxiliary Wells are close, the auxiliary well is one level ahead of it. After the fine ore is loaded from the bottom powder mine warehouse of the main well, the auxiliary shaft is lifted and unloaded into the skip mine warehouse, or directly raises the surface.

Among the above three methods, the first method has the largest development quantity and the management is not convenient, but it can avoid the disadvantage of using the balanced tail rope or the rope tank lane when the tail rope or the tank rope passes through the powder bunker in the latter two methods.

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